Transparency describes those features which (cognitively) contribute to facilitating access and use.

  • Clarity of aims: Do the materials clearly indicate the learning objectives? Are the skills taught and the target level clearly specified?

  • Clarity about achievement: Do the materials help learners become conscious of success and of weaknesses and inform them about progress made in relation to the learning objectives?

  • Clarity of presentation: Do the materials present a clear and logical structure with appropriate, comprehensible instructions and layout?

  • Clarity of rationale: Do the materials provide the teacher with a methodological rationale, explaining the learning approach(es) used?